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Using KVM on

VPS are linux containers, i.e. there is only one kernel running on every node, which is shared between all VPS. In case you need your own kernel or if you'd like to use a different operating system, you can create your own virtual machines inside the VPS using QEMU/KVM.


Go to the details of your VPS in vpsAdmin and turn on the following features:

  • TUN/TAP – enables the creation of virtual interfaces,
  • KVM – enables KVM (for hardware support of virtualization).


Virtual machines can be managed using libvirt with virt-manager.

Mount dataset export from NAS server to QEMU/KVM

If you want to use a connected dataset export from a NAS server in to QEMU/KVM, for example to mount an ISO image of a CD for system boot, and you get this error message “Failed to lock byte 100: No locks available”, the given export must be mounted on the host system with the flag “ nolock”.

For example, if you use fstab to mount to the system:

562.586.65.25:/nas/4562 /mnt/export4562 nfs vers=3,nofail 0 0

You will now use the mount command as follows:

562.586.65.25:/nas/4562 /mnt/export4562 nfs vers=3,nofail,nolock 0 0

(562.586.65.25 > Address of your NFS server; 4562 > number of your dataset on NFS server)

KVM on Alpine Linux

Install the required packages (ip6tables is optional):

apk update
apk add qemu-system-x86_64 qemu-openrc qemu-img bridge iptables ip6tables

Configure the bridge for Qemu/KVM virtual machines – create the /etc/network/interfaces.tail file (of course, you can choose any IP address from your private range):

auto br0
iface br0 inet static
     pre-up brctl addbr br0
     post-down brctl delbr br0

Since OpenVZ rewrites the /etc/network/interfaces file rather clumsily (this is also why we add the configuration of the bridge to interfaces.tail), it is safest to restart the container at this point.

Give the user in the qemu group permissions to manage the newly-created bridge:

echo "allow br0" > /etc/qemu/bridge.conf
chown root:qemu /etc/qemu/bridge.conf
chmod 0640 /etc/qemu/bridge.conf

Configure the IP masquerade so that the Qemu/KVM virtual machines have access to the public Internet.

If you have configured iptables, all you need to add is this rule:

iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s ! -o br0 -j MASQUERADE

If not, you can follow our paragraph on configuring iptables.

Creating and Running a Virtual Machine

This manual presupposes that you will be using qemu-openrc – an OpenRC init script used to start Qemu/KVM. Of course, if you’re on Alpine, you can use libvirt as well, but do you really want and need its clumsy XML configuration files and/or the click interface above it…? ;) Qemu-openrc is a much simpler and more transparent solution. Each virtual machine is represented by an init script. Just like with other programs, you can declare dependencies between virtual machines, etc.

Creating a new virtual machine consists only of preparing an image disk, creating a symlink for the init script and modifying a simple configuration script. Let’s say that the new virtual machine is called “myvirt.”

Prepare a raw image for myvirt with the required size:

mkdir -p /var/lib/qemu/myvirt/
qemu-img create -f raw /var/lib/qemu/myvirt/disk0.img 5G
chown qemu:qemu /var/lib/qemu/myvirt/disk0.img
chmod 0600 /var/lib/qemu/myvirt/disk0.img

Copy the default configuration file /etc/conf.d/qemu to /etc/conf.d/qemu.myvirt and modify it as needed:

cd /etc/conf.d
cp qemu qemu.jarvis
vi qemu.jarvis  # read comments and edit

Most importantly, add the prepared image:


You will probably also need to add the installation CD of a distribution that you have already downloaded:


Create a symlink for the init script and run myvirt.

cd /etc/init.d
ln -s qemu qemu.myvirt
rc-service qemu.myvirt start

Configuring iptables

If you aren’t using any tool to generate iptables rules (like e.g. ferm), I recommend basing them on [|existing rule templates]]. These are already in the iptables format, which can be loaded using iptables-restore.

Download the modified rule template with the added masquerade for our bridge to /etc/iptables:

rmdir /etc/iptables
wget -O /etc/iptables

Modify the /etc/conf.d/iptables configuration file (IPv4):

# /etc/conf.d/iptables

…and the /etc/conf.d/ip6tables configuration file (IPv6):

# /etc/conf.d/ip6tables

Run iptables and ip6tables and add them to the runlevel boot:

rc-service iptables start
rc-service ip6tables start
rc-update add iptables boot
rc-update add ip6tables boot


manuals/vps/kvm.txt · Last modified: 2023/10/20 11:04 by